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      1.  ·[特稿]解讀“習主席的文化理念”系列專題·   ·[專稿]采風系列《自駕中國行》·   ·城雕大師--張寶貴·   ·雞鳴聞三省--4A蘇木山·   ·赤峰:紅山文化,魅力草原·   ·火!北京風痕“10+30=1800”網媒小炒作·
          您當前的位置:首頁 > 中國城市專家

        范周:讓工業遺產成為文化新地標

        時間:2019-05-06 15:41:58  來源:人民日報海外版 中國前沿資訊網  作者:范周

        18世紀中葉,工業革命爆發,人類文明在這場席卷全球的生產力革命中完成了由農耕文明向現代工業文明的轉軌。工業遺產見證了工業文化的孕育、成熟和變遷,是全球文明進程的重要史料。除了歷史價值,工業遺產的藝術價值體現在建筑風格、景觀美學等方面,科技價值體現在工業技藝、制造流程等方面,經濟價值體現在開發和再利用方面,社會價值體現在集體情感、精神風貌、文化多樣等方面。

        保護工業遺產是文化自覺的表現,也是成熟社會管理形態的體現。法國早在1840年就頒布了世界上第一部關于文化遺產保護的法律《歷史性建筑法案》。20世紀50年代,英國明確了“工業考古”的概念。1986 年,擁有世界上第一座金屬橋的英國鐵橋峽谷被聯合國教科文組織列入世界遺產名錄。美國蘇荷區、德國魯爾區,都是工業遺址保護更新的經典案例。

        近年來,中國越發重視對工業遺產的研究和保護,在借鑒國際先進經驗的基礎上,進行了自己的探索和實踐。漢冶萍鋼鐵廠、青島啤酒廠、第一顆原子彈試驗基地等多處遺址被確定為國家級工業遺產博物館。各地廣泛開展關于工業遺產的調查、申報、保護工作。2018年1月,中國科協創新戰略研究院和中國城市學會聯合發布《中國工業遺產保護名錄(第一批)》。2019年4月,《中國工業遺產保護名錄(第二批)》發布。隨著兩批工業遺產保護名錄的發布,我們對于工業遺產的認識更加深入,相關的研究保護工作也有了更可靠的依據。

        工業遺產是城市文化的搖籃。以工業建筑為核心,蔓生出市民的生產生活脈絡,構筑起城市的有機體。在工業遺產保護過程中,我們必須堅持整體性和原真性兩個原則。

        這就要求把工業遺產安全放在首位。近年來,文物建筑遺存遭毀的“天災人禍”頻頻發生,令人痛心疾首。這給我們敲響了警鐘——務必摸清工業遺產現狀,建立明確權屬關系,制定科學的應急防范預案。只有保障安全,才能在此基礎上把握工業遺產價值,進而分級、分類開發。

        還要考慮到工業遺產保護與城市肌理的關系。中國城市工業化有一道獨特的風景,就是圍繞工業區建成的單位大院。二者形成的有機整體體現了中國傳統院落的空間秩序,同時也承載了幾代人的集體記憶。保護工業遺產要綜合時空關系和社會語境,處理好工業遺存與城市規劃、歷史街區等方面的關系,因地制宜地建立綜合、整體的保護機制,避免“碎片化”保護。

        要樹立物質遺存與精神文化保護并重的觀念。工業遺產蘊含著城市精神,是物質文化和非物質文化的總和。大慶松基三井見證了大慶油田的誕生,也是新中國石油工業成就和大慶精神的重要象征。大慶市要傳承城市文化根脈,就要充分提煉和發揚工業遺產的精神內涵。

        保護與開發不是相悖的,在保護工業遺產的基礎上使其成為文化創新的資源,才能讓城市文化歷久彌新、永續發展。

        一種思路是打造城市文化會客廳”,將工業遺產保護利用與社區營造、公共服務結合起來。重視工業遺存與城市景觀塑造的統一,加強工業遺存與周邊新老社區的對話。前身是燃氣用具廠房的北京市朝陽規劃藝術館,如今成為新舊動能轉換的縮影,積極探索數字化智慧展館模式,打造居民公共文化生活的會客廳。

        一種思路是“騰籠換鳥”,建設文化創意產業園區。盤活工業存量空間,提升資源要素配置效率,是城市發展動能轉化和業態升級的重要途徑。許多老舊廠房探索“文化+科技”轉型升級新方向,由粗糙化改造逐漸走向精細化運營,越來越多“工業廢墟”變身“創意高地”。

        工業遺產這座富礦,不僅屬于當代,更屬于未來。新時代的工業遺產不僅要成為展示工業文明的窗口,更應接續城市精神,成為全社會共建、共享的文化新地標。(作者為中國傳媒大學文化產業管理學院院長)

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